Tag Archives: Kitonyoni

Kitonyoni Solar Mini-grid and Integration of Thermal Energy Services

Binu Parthan from SEA writes on his recent visit to the Kitonyoni Solar Mini-Grid project, part of the University of Southampton’s efforts for the Energy for Development (E4D) project they lead.

The solar mini-grid at Kitonyoni near Machakos in Makueni County was financed by the UK government and commissioned in 2012 by the STEPs partner The Sustainable Energy Research Group at University of Southampton. The Kitonyoni Solar mini-grid is managed by Makueni County Solar Energy Co-op Society Ltd which is owned and managed by the community.

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Management of the Solar Electric Cooperative and manager of the mini-grid business. Image: Sustainable Energy Associates

In July 2016, I travelled to Kitonyoni to visit the solar min-grid and meet with the community. While at Kitonyoni, I met with Joseph, Monicah, William and Shadrack from the management Makueni County Solar Energy Co-op Society Ltd and also with Stephen, the manager of the mini-grid and energy service business. With the community leaders and the manager of the mini-grid, I visited several businesses and households that were consuming electricity from the cooperative to understand the business model. The solar electric cooperative seems to be professionally managed and financially sustainable. They operate on a for-profit business basis and the financial accounts reveal that the operation is financially sustainable. The electricity cooperative uses a pre-paid card system for electricity sales and payments which seems to be working well. The electricity consumers are more conscious of energy use and payments and the cooperative is also happy with the upfront collections. The number of shops in the Kitonyoni market has significantly increased since the solar mini-grid was commissioned and the value of the land in the area has also almost tripled. However, the tariff charged by the solar electric cooperative is considerably higher than the public electricity utility but the community has been willing to pay a higher tariff due to better availability and reliability.

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One of the new businesses established in the Kitonyoni market powered by the solar mini-grid. Image: Sustainable Energy Associates/span>

STEPs project team at University of Southampton had carried out a survey to examine the possibility of integrating thermal energy services into the existing electrical energy service business model. The results showed that 90% of the households in Kitonyoni use firewood for cooking which is available without cost to the community (Bahaj and Kanani, 2016). While the households spends over 5 hours to gather firewood, there is limited interest in switching to cleaner cooking options such as LPG which involve additional financial expenditure. The opportunity to integrate a solar thermal energy service along with the electricity service seems rather limited due to limited scope and demand for commercial fuels. The firewood is available freely in the area and LPG distribution networks are not available in the village.  Therefore currently, there does not seem to be a business case for introduction of an LPG franchise model and integrate the model into the solar electricity business. However some thoughts that I shared with the community were:

Since households and restaurants are cooking in separate rooms than their houses and as there is a preference for community schemes, will a community electric cooking scheme succeed? This may be relevant as on most days the battery bank of the solar mini-grid seems to be fully charged in the early afternoon and this could provide an opportunity for a central cluster of electric induction cookers which people can use to cook on a pay per use basis(similar to battery charging) to the cooperative.

It is possible that people may opt for efficient Cookstoves/Jikos if available on a hire-purchase/PAYG basis and reduce the amount of firewood to be collected resulting in time savings. An efficient Jiko will cost 45 $ which could be offered on a loan basis with daily/weekly/monthly payments to people by the cooperative for 6 months to 1 year tenure. These funds could be revolved over the time period to reach other members.

A differential tariff with a lower tier-tariff for the shops and establishments that use electricity during the day will likely improve the revenue model of the cooperative and can increase the utilisation levels. Such a tariff regime could allow the use of induction electric cookers at households during the day. Such a development could result in increasing sales and revenue and improving the business viability.

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Cooking using firewood and a metallic stove in Kitonyoni. Image: Sustainable Energy Associates

Therefore the technology options for thermal energy and cooking in Kitonyoni is electric cooking or efficient Cookstoves with the possible business models of pay-per-use or hire-purchase respectively. A differential tariff with lower off-peak tariff could also allow electric cooking during the day time and improve the business model. These options are not entirely obvious and needs to be investigated and defined. This approach will certainly face stiff competition from free biomass availability and availability of free time for fire-wood collection.

Dr. Binu Parthan

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Energy for Development Case Study – Replication of Rural Decentralised Off-grid Electricity Generation through Technology and Business Innovation

Prof. AbuBakr Bahaj and Rucha Amin from Southampton University write on the University’s Energy for Development (E4D) project, providing renewable and reliable power to rural Kenyan communities.

Reliable and affordable sources of energy are fundamental not only for wellbeing, but also for economic growth and poverty reduction. Rural communities that do not have access to the national electricity network are also deprived of the associated benefits in health and quality of life provided by electrical services such as lighting and refrigeration. Fulfilling the energy needs of developing countries without compromising the environment is a challenge requiring imaginative policies and methods.

The approach adopted by E4D in Kitonyoni, Kenya focussed on a replicable, community based solar mini-grid electrification system aimed at invigorating village trading centres and promoting business innovation. The core of the project is based on a 13.5 kWp solar photovoltaic (PV) array with integrated rainwater harvesting system coupled to a mini-grid. The latter provides power to all trading centre buildings (shops, cafes, schools, health centres, churches etc.) and local businesses that in turn are able to provide charging facilities for electrical appliances, such as LED lanterns and mobile phones, to customers.

A major focus of this project has been to establish an economically sustainable system whereby the community contributes to the project and is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the plant. Income is generated for the cooperative which is also set up as an energy supply company (ESCO) through membership fees, local sales of electricity and share ownership. This income covers the running costs of the project, provides finances to the community as well as contributing to the recovery of the capital cost of the project.

Soton E4D ImageThe E4D project solar installation in Kitonyoni, Kenya. All images Sustainable Energy Research Group, University of Southampton

Since the installation in September 2012, there are clear indications that the trading centre in Kitonyoni is being transformed with land prices increasing, a number of new buildings constructed, new businesses opening and existing business owners reporting profit increases.  There has also been a marked improvement in healthcare provisions with a newly donated, fully electrified maternity clinic in operation. Furthermore, one replication project has already been carried out in Bambouti, Cameroon with a third installation in Oloika, Kenya planned for later this year.

For more information: http://www.energyfordevelopment.net/

– AbuBakr Bahaj and Rucha Amin, Southampton University