This post, the second in our business models series, aims to explore the differences between state-led dissemination models and private-sector business models, both in terms of scalability, as well as affordability for consumer and the potential for developing sustainable markets and sustainable businesses.
There are a variety of business models that could be used to develop clean cookstoves businesses, which can broadly be categorised into three spheres: direct dissemination models, where the user receives a cookstove funded by an outside organisation (government, international donors etc.); vendor sales models, where consumers directly purchase a cookstove for a lump sum from a vendor, and micro-credit models, either delivered by vendors themselves or through dedicated micro-finance institutions. 
Vendor sales are the most common method of businesses interacting with end-users in the clean cookstoves sphere. These vendors either purchase cookstoves on a wholesale basis from producers or distributors, or are assisted by third-sector financing organisations to enable this purchase. BURN Cookstoves in Kenya, one of the largest integrated cookstoves companies in the country, uses a direct-sales model for its operations.
Micro-credit in the form of dealer credits are another common financing instrument used in vendor purchase models for clean cookstoves, allowing consumers to pay a periodic fee to progressively purchase a clean cookstove. Some vendors have clean cookstoves as their primary business, others use it as an additional income stream to a more traditional goods shop, or as another source of revenue in an energy service company business. For example, some solar home system concessions in South Africa, such as the Nuon-RAPS (NuRa) utility are using clean cookstoves to supplement their business with a smaller, secondary revenue stream, selling both cookstove equipment and fuels. NuRa uses sales of charcoal and ethanol gel cookstoves, as well as integrated fuel/hob LPG stoves, to supplement their main solar home system business.
The Kenyan clean cookstoves market is a good example of one that has transitioned from a direct dissemination model at a donor/state scale to a private-sector led distribution and sales model. Donor/development agency-led clean cookstoves programs in Kenya date back to the 1980s, and designs used in the initial deployment phase, such as the Kenya Ceramic Jiko (KCJ), have become staple designs of the market. Charcoal stoves however are still the predominant cookstove type used in Kenya, with estimates that 47% of the population use some form of charcoal stove, rising to 80% in urban areas such as Nairobi. Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves estimates put the size of the market at 2.5-3 million households using some form of clean cookstove in 2012. As of February 2016, the GACC is continuing to work with partners such as the Clean Cooking Association of Kenya (CCAK) and other governmental and non-governmental organisations, to disseminate 5 million improved cookstoves by 2020.
The cookstove market is fragmented in Kenya, with the majority of cookstove production done on a small to medium scale. Distribution costs can be high because of this, and with a poor road network in some areas, it becomes more feasible for wholesale buyers to collect directly from producers. Cookstoves are sold through a combination of dedicated retailers and traditional vendors, with wholesale buyers acting as further distribution agents to demand centres. 
There are a number of reasons why private-sector models can have advantages over state/donor-led dissemination. The Kenyan market relies on private provision of cookstoves from manufacturers at a local level, with vendors purchasing cookstoves wholesale to be sold later. Whilst this can increase costs to end users due to multiple markups in the value chain, offering micro-finance at a vendor level allows vendors to access wider segments of the consumer market, allowing people who could otherwise not afford a cookstove outright the chance to progressively purchase one. Scalability and flexibility are also advantages to private-sector dissemination, with multiple opportunities across the value chain for businesses depending on local consumer preferences and material availabilities. 
The next post in this series will explore the concept of the clean cookstoves value chain further, and identify where potential business might be sited within this value chain.
– Daniel Kerr, UCL Energy Institute
 GVEP International (2012a) Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves Kenya Market Assessment, Sector Mapping. Available at: http://cleancookstoves.org/resources_files/kenya-market-assessment-mapping.pdf
 Gaul (2009) Subsidy schemes for the dissemination of improved stoves. Experiences of GTZ HERA and Energising Development. Available at: http://fsg.afre.msu.edu/promisam_2/references/Gaul_2009_Stove_Subsidies.pdf
 SNV (2015) ICS Business Toolkit, Starting, Managing and Growing an Improved Cook Stoves Business in Uganda. Available at: http://snv.org/en/countries/uganda/publications/snv-uganda-integrated-cookstove-business-toolkit